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THE MASTER                                       71

It was in those early times of complete responsibility of
the master that use of bottomry bonds and respondentia
bonds was regularly made. When a master of a ship found
that the freight he had earned and collected, and other '
moneys on board were insufficient to pay for charges he had
incurred, then bottomry bonds were used, by which the ship j
was pledged against a loan. If the ship proved to be in-
sufficient for this purpose then the cargo was also pledged
by way of respondentia bonds. Now, however, within a few
minutes large sums of money may be transmitted from one
country to another, and the need for these documents has
consequently decreased.

Apart from the powers of managing the ship's business,
the master has supreme power on board his ship, and may
arrest either the crew or passengers of the ship if they be-
come a menace to the vessel. In the case of a passenger
being arrested it is usual for him or her to be detained in a
cabin until the vessel reaches its destination. In the event
of a person becoming a dangerous menace, then the master
may have such a person put in irons. In all cases prisoners
are handed over to the authorities at the port of destination,
or if convenient at an intermediate port.

In the case of a mutiny, any act of the master is regarded
as one of self-defence, and he may call on all persons on
board to render assistance (in a similar manner to police
officers on land who may demand assistance in a time of
danger from any person), failure to give such assistance
constituting a crime.

A master has full authority to purchase necessary stores
and equipment for his ship, and t^e charges for same are a
charge against the owners, but goods which may be deemed
unnecessary, although ordered by the master for the owners,
may be chargeable to the master. He is only allowed to
make purchases which are necessary and reasonable.
What is "a necessary" may be ascertained by determining
whether the owner, being a prudent man, would have
acted in a simfar manner had he been on board at the